P0028 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Range / Perf. B2
OBD2 Error Codes

P0028 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Range / Perf. B2

P0028 Intake Valve Control Solenoid Range / Perf. B2

OBD-II DTC Datasheet

Intake Valve Control Solenoid Circuit Out of Range / Performance Bank 2

What does this mean?

This Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) is a generic transmission code, which means it applies to OBD-II equipped vehicles including but not limited to Toyota, VW, Ford, Dodge, Honda, Chevrolet, Hyundai, Audi, Acura, etc. E. Specific repair steps may vary depending on the model.

On vehicles equipped with Variable Valve Timing (VVT), the camshafts are controlled by hydraulic actuators fed by the engine oil system via control solenoids from the Engine Control Module/Powertrain Control Module (ECM/PCM). The ECM/PCM has detected that the intake camshaft range of motion on Bank 2 is out of specification or not working on command. Bank 2 refers to the side of the engine opposite cylinder No. 1 - be sure to check the correct side according to the manufacturer's specifications. The intake valve control solenoid is usually located on the intake manifold side of the cylinder head.

Note. This code can also be related to codes P0081, P0082, or P0083 - if any of these codes exist, troubleshoot the solenoid problem before proceeding to diagnose the circuit range/performance problem. This code is similar to codes P0026, P0027 and P0029.


Symptoms of a P0028 trouble code may include:

  • MIL Illumination (Malfunction Indicator)
  • Poor acceleration or engine performance
  • Reduced fuel economy


Possible causes of DTC P0028 may include:

  • Low engine oil or contaminated oil
  • Clogged oil system
  • Faulty control solenoid
  • Faulty camshaft drive
  • Timing chain / belt loose or incorrectly adjusted
  • Defective ECM / PCM

Possible solutions

Engine Oil - Check the engine oil level to make sure the engine oil charge is sufficient. Since the actuators operate under oil pressure, the correct amount of oil is critical to ensure that the VVT ​​system works properly. Dirty or contaminated fluid can cause buildup which can lead to failure of the control solenoid or camshaft actuator.

Control Solenoid – The camshaft control solenoid can be tested for continuity with a digital volt/ohmmeter (DVOM) using the resistance measurement function by disconnecting the solenoid harness connector and checking the solenoid resistance using the (+) and (-) DVOM leads on each terminal. Verify that the internal resistance is within the manufacturer's specifications, if any. If the resistance is within specifications, remove the control solenoid to ensure it is not contaminated, or if there is damage to the o-rings, to cause loss of oil pressure.

Camshaft Drive - The camshaft drive is a mechanical device controlled by internal spring pressure and regulated by oil supplied by a control solenoid. When no oil pressure is applied, it defaults to the "safe" position. Refer to the manufacturer's suggested procedure for removing the camshaft position actuator from the engine camshaft to ensure there are no leaks that could cause loss of oil pressure in the actuator supply/return hydraulic lines or within the actuator itself. Check the timing chain/belt and components to ensure they are in proper working order and installed in the correct position on the camshaft gear.

ECM/PCM – The ECM/PCM commands the control solenoid using a pulse-width modulated (PWM) signal to regulate the on/off timing, which results in pressure control used to move the camshaft actuator. A graphical multimeter or oscilloscope is required to view the PWM signal to ensure that the ECM/PCM is working properly. To test the PWM signal, the positive (+) lead is connected to the ground side of the control solenoid (if supplied with DC voltage, grounded) or to the power side of the control solenoid (if permanently grounded, positive control) and the negative (-) lead connected to a well-known grounding. If the PWM signal is not consistent with changes in engine RPM, the ECM/PCM may be the problem.

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