One of the most exciting topics for drivers is the debate about whether you need to warm up the engine of your "iron friend". Most are inclined to believe that this procedure is necessary in winter. As for the warm period of the year, drivers cannot find a consensus on whether warming up is beneficial or not.
Modern cars run on four types of fuel: gasoline, diesel, gas and electric, as well as combinations of them. At this stage in the development of the automotive industry, most cars have a gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine.
Depending on the type of air-fuel mixture supply, two types of gasoline internal combustion engines are distinguished:
- carburetor (sucked into the combustion chamber with a pressure difference or when the compressor is running);
- injection (electronic system injects the mixture using special nozzles).
Carburetor engines are an older version of internal combustion engines, most (if not all) gasoline-powered cars now have an injector.
As for diesel ICEs, they have a fundamentally unified design and differ only in the presence of a turbocharger. TDI models are equipped with this function, while HDI and SDI are atmospheric type devices. In any case, diesel engines do not have a special system for fuel ignition. Microexplosions, which ensure the start of combustion, occur as a result of compression of a special diesel fuel.
Electric motors use electricity to drive cars. They have no moving parts (pistons, carburetors), so the system does not need to be warmed up.
Carburetor engines operate in 4 or 2 cycles. Moreover, two-stroke ICEs are mainly put on chainsaws, scythes, motorcycles, etc. - devices that do not have such a heavy load as cars.
Tacts of one working cycle of an ordinary passenger car
- Inlet. A new portion of the mixture enters the cylinder through the inlet valve (gasoline is mixed in the required proportion with air in the carburetor diffuser).
- Compression. The intake and exhaust valves are closed, the combustion chamber piston compresses the mixture.
- Extension. The compressed mixture is ignited by the spark of the spark plug. The gases obtained in this process move the piston up, and it turns the crankshaft. That, in turn, makes the wheels spin.
- Release. The cylinder is cleared of combustion products through the open exhaust valve.
As can be seen from the simplified diagram of the operation of the internal combustion engine, its operation ensures the correct functioning of the carburetor and combustion chamber. These two blocks, in turn, consist of many small and medium-sized parts that are constantly amenable to friction.
In principle, the fuel mixture lubricates them well. Also, a special oil is poured into the system, which protects parts from abrasion. But at the stage of turning on the internal combustion engine, all the ingredients are in a cold state and are not able to fill all the necessary areas with lightning speed.
Warming up the internal combustion engine performs the following tasks:
- the temperature of the oil rises and, as a result, its fluidity;
- the air ducts of the carburetor warm up;
- The internal combustion engine reaches operating temperature (90 °C).
The melted oil easily reaches every corner of the engine and transmission, lubricates parts and reduces friction. A warm ICE runs easier and more evenly.
In the cold period, when the temperature drops below 0 ° C, warming up the carburetor internal combustion engine is essential. The stronger the frost, the thicker the oil and the worse it spreads through the system. Consequently, when starting the internal combustion engine, it starts its work almost dry.
As for the warm season, the oil in the system is much warmer than in winter. Do I need to warm up the engine then? The answer is more yes than no. The ambient temperature is still unable to heat the oil to such a state that it spreads freely throughout the system.
The difference between winter and summer heating is only in the duration of the process. Experienced drivers advise turning on the internal combustion engine at idle for 10-15 minutes before the trip in winter (depending on the ambient temperature). In summer, 1-1,5 minutes will be enough.
The injection internal combustion engine is more progressive than the carburetor, since the fuel consumption in it is much less. Also, these devices are more powerful (on average by 7-10%).
Automakers in the instructions for cars with an injector indicate that these vehicles do not need warming up both in summer and winter. The main reason is that the ambient temperature does not affect its operation.
Nevertheless, experienced drivers still advise warming it up for 30 seconds in summer, and about a minute or two in winter.
Diesel fuel has a high viscosity, and at low ambient temperatures, starting an internal combustion engine becomes difficult, not to mention the abrasion of system parts. Warming up such a car has the following consequences:
- improves ignition;
- reduces fuel paraffinization;
- warms up the fuel mixture;
- improves nozzle atomization.
This is especially true in winter. But experienced drivers advise even in the summer to turn on / off the glow plugs a set of times, which will heat the combustion chamber. This not only improves the performance of the internal combustion engine, but also protects its parts from abrasion. This is especially important for ICE models with the designation TDI (turbocharged).
In an effort to save on fuel, many drivers install LPG on their cars. In addition to all the other nuances associated with their work, there is uncertainty about whether it is necessary to warm up the internal combustion engine before driving.
As a standard, idle start is carried out on gasoline fuel. But the following points also allow gas heating:
- air temperature above +5 °С;
- full serviceability of the internal combustion engine;
- alternating fuel for idling (for example, use gas 1 time, and the next 4-5 use gasoline).
One thing is indisputable - in the summer it is necessary to warm up the internal combustion engine running on gas.
Summarizing the above information, we can conclude that it is imperative to warm up carbureted gasoline engines, gas and turbocharged diesel engines in the summer. Injector and electric are able to function effectively in the warm season and without warming up.